|1.- Requiem aeternam|
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine
et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion (Salmo 63)
et tibi reddetur votum in Ierusalem.
exaudi orationem meam,
ad te omnis caro veniet.
Dales el descanso eterno, Señor,
y que la luz perpetua los ilumine.
Mereces un himno, Dios, en Sion
y te ofrecerán votos en Jerusalen.
atiende mi oración,
todos los cuerpos van a tí.
|2.- Kyrie eleison|
Señor, ten piedad.
Cristo, ten piedad.
|3.- Dies irae|
Dies irae, dies illa
solvet saeclum in favilla,
teste David cum Sibylla.
Quantus tremor est futurus
quando iudex est venturus
cuncta stricte discussurus!
Día de ira aquel día
en que los siglos serán reducidos a cenizas,
como profetizó David con la Sibila.
Cuánto terror habrá en el futuro
cuando venga el Juez
a exigirnos cuentas, rigurosamente!
|4.- Tuba mirum|
Tuba mirum spargens sonum
per sepulcra regionum
coget omnes ante thronum.
Mors stupebit et natura
cum resurget creatura
Liber scriptus proferetur
in quo totum continetur
unde mundus iudicetur.
Iudex ergo cum sedebit
quidquid latet apparebit,
nil inultum remanebit.
(soprano y cuarteto)
Quid sum miser tum dicturus?
Quem pratonum rogaturus,
cum vix iustus sit securus?
La trompeta, esparciendo un asombroso sonido
por los sepulcros de las regiones
reunirá a todos ante el trono.
La naturaleza y la muerte se asombrarán
cuando resuciten las criaturas
para responder ante el Juez.
Y por aquel profético libro
en que todo está contenido
el mundo será juzgado.
El Juez, pues, cuando se siente
todo lo oculto saldrá a la luz,
nada quedará impune.
¿Qué podré decir yo, desdichado?
¿A qué abogado invocaré,
cuando ni los justos están seguros?
|5.- Rex tremendae|
Rex tremendae majestatis
qui salvandos salvas gratis,
salva me fons pietatis!
Rey de majestad tremenda
a quienes salves será por tu gracia,
¡sálvame, fuente de piedad!
Recordare, Iesu pie
quod sum causa tuae viae,
ne me perdas illa die.
Quarens me, sedisti lassus,
redemisti crucem passus;
tantus labor non sit cassus.
Iuste iudex ultionis,
donum fac remissionis
ante diem rationis.
Ingemisco, tanquam reus,
culpa rubet vultus meus;
supplicanti parce, Deus.
Qui Mariam absolvisti
et Latronem exaudisti
mihi quoque spem dedisti.
Preces meae non sunt dignae,
sed tu bonus fac benigne
ne perenni cremer igne.
Inter oves locum praesta
et ab haedis me secuestra
statuens in parte dextra.
Acuérdate, piadoso Jesús,
ya que soy la causa de tu venida,
de no perderme aquel día.
Buscándome, te sentaste cansado,
me redimiste padeciendo la cruz;
tanto trabajo no sea vano.
Juez que castigas justamente,
otórgame el perdón
antes del Día del Juicio.
Gimo, como un reo,
el pecado enrojece mi rostro;
perdona, Dios, a quien te implora.
Tú que absolviste a María
y perdonaste al ladrón,
también a mí me has dado esperanza.
Mis ruegos no lo merecen,
pero tú, bueno como eres, haz benignamente
que no sea yo quemado en el fuego perenne.
Dame un lugar entre las ovejas
y separándome de los cabritos
colócame a tu derecha.
flammis acribus addictis,
voca me cum benedictis.
Oro supplex et acclinis,
cor contritum quasi cinis,
gere curam mei finis.
Rechazados ya los malditos,
y entregados a las crueles llamas,
llámame con los benditos.
Suplicante y humilde te ruego,
con el corazón casi hecho ceniza,
apiádate de mi última hora.
Lacrimosa dies illa
qua resurget et favilla
iudicandus homo reus.
Huic ergo parce, Deus.
Pe Iesu, Domine,
dona eis requiem. Amen.
Día de lágrimas aquél
en que resurja del polvo
para ser juzgado el hombre reo.
Perdónale pues, Dios.br> Piadoso Jesús, Señor,
dales el descanso. Amén.
|9.- Domine Iesu|
Domine Iesu Christe, Rex gloriae,
libera animas omnium fidelium defunctorum
de poenis inferni et de profundo lacu.
Libera eas de ore leonis,
ne absorbeat eas tartarus,
ne cadant in obscurum,
sed signifer sanctus Michael
repraesentet eas in lucem sanctam,
quam olim Abrahae promisisti
et semini eius.
Señor Jesucristo, Rey de la gloria,
libera a las almas de todos los fieles difuntos
de las penas del infierno y de las profundidades del lago.
Líbralas de la boca del león,
que el abismo no las absorba,
ni caigan en las tinieblas,
sino que el abanderado San Miguel
las conduzca hacia la santa luz,
como antaño prometiste a Abraham
y a sus descendientes.
|10.- Hostias et preces|
Hostias et preces tibi, Domine,
Tu suscipe pro animabus illis,
quarum hodie memoriam facimus.
Fac eas, Domine,
de morte transire ad vitam,
quam olim Abrahae promisisti
et semini eius.
Súplicas y alabanzas, Señor,
te ofrecemos en sacrificio.
Acéptalas en nombre de las almas
en cuya memoria hoy las hacemos.
Hazlas pasar, Señor,
de la muerte a la vida,
como antaño prometiste a Abraham
y a su descendencia.
sanctus Dominus Deus sabaoth.
Pleni sunt caeli et terra gloria tua.
Hosanna in excelsis.
santo es el Señor Dios de los Ejércitos.
Llenos están los cielos y la tierra de su gloria.
Hosanna en las alturas.
Benedictus qui venit
in nomine Domini.
Hosanna in excelsis.
Bendito el que viene
en el nombre del Señor.
Hosanna en las alturas.
|13.- Agnus Dei|
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona nobis pacem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem sempiternam.
Cordero de Dios, que quitas los pecados del mundo,
ten piedad de nosotros.
Cordero de Dios, que quitas los pecados del mundo,
danos la paz.
Cordero de Dios, que quitas los pecados del mundo,
dales el descanso eterno.
|14.- Lux aeternam|
(soprano y coro)
Lux aeternam luceat eis, Domine,
cum sanctis tuis in aeternum, quia pius es.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine,
et lux perpetua luceat eis,
cum sanctis tuis in aeternum, quia pius es.
La luz eterna brille para ellos, Señor,
con tus santos para la eternidad, porque eres misericordioso.
Descanso eterno dales, Señor,
y que la luz perpetua los ilumine,
con tus santos para la eternidad, porque eres misericordioso
jueves, 26 de diciembre de 2019
miércoles, 25 de diciembre de 2019
lunes, 16 de diciembre de 2019
The devil is in the detail" is an idiom that refers to a catch or mysterious element hidden in the details, meaning that something might seem simple at a first look but will take more time and effort to complete than expected and derives from the earlier phrase, "God is in the detail" expressing the idea that whatever one does should be done thoroughly; i.e. details are important.
|Look up devil is in the details in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
The idiom, "God is in the detail" has been attributed to a number of different individuals, most notably to German-born architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969) by The New York Times in Mies's 1969 obituary; however, it is generally accepted not to have originated with him. The expression also appears to have been a favorite of German art historian Aby Warburg (1866–1929), though Warburg's biographer, E. H. Gombrich, is likewise uncertain if it originated with Warburg. An earlier form, "Le bon Dieu est dans le détail" ("the good God is in the detail") is generally attributed to Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880). Bartlett's Familiar Quotations lists the saying's author as anonymous. The phrase is attested in 1965; in 1969, it is referred to as an existing proverb.
The phrase has several variants: (The/A) Devil (is) in the Detail(s). The original expression as, "God is in the detail" most likely had the expression ending with "detail" (without an "s"), colloquial usage often ends the idiom as "details"; where the word "detail" without an "s" can be used as both a singular and collective noun. However, the singular word "detail" has evolved to mean other terms in some cultures, such as a military security detail as a duty assignment, or detailing a car as cleaning or polishing a vehicle ("to detail"), and so the plural form, "details" has been used to more clearly indicate the finer points of a topic.
More recently, the expressions "Governing (is) in the Detail(s)" and "(The) Truth (is) in the Detail(s)" have appeared.
domingo, 15 de diciembre de 2019
sábado, 14 de diciembre de 2019
Siendo hijo de una acomodada familia española, dedicada a labores del campo y propietaria de la hacienda de Chichihualco. Al iniciarse la Guerra de Independencia, él y su hijo Nicolás Bravo, así como sus cuatro hermanos Miguel, Víctor, Máximo y Casimiro se negaron a formar una compañía de auxiliares realistas, razón por cual las autoridades del virreinato los hostigaron hasta obligarlos a esconderse. La tropa realista que llegó a aprehenderlos fue repelida por la gente de la hacienda y los hermanos Galeana. A partir de 1811, los Bravo tomaron parte en la lucha insurgente, unidos a las fuerzas de José María Morelos y Pavón. Logró salir del sitio de Cuautla, pero fue capturado por los realistas. El gobierno virreinal ofreció a su hijo, Nicolás, y a sus cuatro hermanos que se rindieran y a cambio le perdonarían la vida a don Leonardo.1 Sin embargo, tales ofrecimientos del Virrey no constituían garantía alguna, pues otros insurgentes que se habían acogido a su palabra de indulto, como los Orduña, fueron salvajemente ejecutados por los realistas.
viernes, 13 de diciembre de 2019
miércoles, 11 de diciembre de 2019
- Put that smile on your face everytime you communicate with people. It'll help to reduce anxiousness.
- Say please and thank you. Manners define who you are. Respect can only be earned if you show it too.
- Don't gossip about anybody. What goes around comes around. Nobody is going to like you if you try hard to fit in by making others look bad.
- Be professional in your job. Do it well. If you know what you're doing, keep going. People who waste time are least likely to be seen as productive. Most people like people that are hardworking.
- Groom. Look good. Look fabulous. Look classy. We look at appearance first because that's what catches our eyes. Someone liking your sense of fashion is definitely one easy way of being instantly liked.
- Smell nice. Some people are attracted to different smells. The nicer you smell, the more people will like you. Hygiene is at the top of the list to some people. Maintaining good hygiene is crucial.
- Speak politely. I am in awe when I meet people who speak politely and listen well. It shows they have good communication skills. Nobody wants to meet someone who raises their voice and utters insulting words most of the time. It costs nothing to be a nice person.
- Be driven by something. Know what you want and let it be your motivation.
- Don't be too sensitive. Be open about everything. Listen to what others have to say. Take in everything that's happening in the world. But, don't sit and dwell on the problems, instead choose to make a difference. Make the right choices that will benefit than cause hurt and division. The more open you are, the less likely people will think you're biased or even judgemental.
- Having a voice and using it. Standing up for yourself. Respecting yourself enough to not giving anyone the right to disrespect you. Be a person of value. Be YOU!
domingo, 8 de diciembre de 2019
miércoles, 4 de diciembre de 2019
martes, 3 de diciembre de 2019
lunes, 2 de diciembre de 2019
One of the easiest ways to develop self-confidence and higher self-esteem is to become very good at something - perhaps your job.
Don’t be the guy who’s satisfied with mediocre work and says it’s “good enough”. If it’s only “good enough” it’s not.
Make a habit of doing everything you do as excellently as possible. Even if no one sees your work but you, imagine the CEO or president of the company is going to review your work. Before you turn in anything in writing, review it several times to catch any misspellings or grammatical errors, and always use Spell-Check. Imagine your English professor is going to review that report.
If your work hours are from 8:00 to 5:00, show up at 7:45 AM and don’t leave until 5:15 PM. It will be noticed.
Dress as professionally as is appropriate for your work place. If you work as a lawyer, CPA or stock broker, this probably means a well-tailored suit and tie. If you work in a tech industry, dressing professionally may mean a polo shirt, khakis and loafers. Dress like the CEO or president of the company dresses.
Make a habit of treating everyone you work with with respect and polite manners.
If you develop a reputation of being excellent at your work, as being highly professional in all your dealings with others and as being polite and respectful to everyone, you will earn the respect of others, and thereby become more self-confident and increase your self-esteem.
domingo, 1 de diciembre de 2019
sábado, 30 de noviembre de 2019
viernes, 29 de noviembre de 2019
jueves, 28 de noviembre de 2019
martes, 26 de noviembre de 2019
jueves, 21 de noviembre de 2019
Everybody insists: Be remarkable, be genius, be this and be that.
But, how many people actually have acted on such advice? The answer is: just 1%.
Because, being remarkable sounds like a lot of effort, a lot of thinking, and a lot of sacrifices.
People find it attractive to hear such great and powerful words. Sure, everybody wants to become remarkable. Everyone wants to be known as a master or someone who has nailed the success formula.
Everyone wants but can't achieve mastery! See, isn't this interesting?
Why is that?
Here's why: When a person decides to be remarkable, her false beliefs come in the way. False beliefs, in the sense that she will see a lot of faults, shortcomings in her life than positive things about herself. Some false beliefs she got from what she has been told since here childhood. And some false beliefs she adopted through her own experience in life.
When she aims at being remarkable, she will imagine that, 'being remarkable means doing everything beyond average, and see I even can't do it at a lower standard'. She will think, 'for being remarkable, I will need to have a lot of resources, time and opportunities, but I don't have any of them at my disposal'.
Such false beliefs will never make anybody remarkable but even that person won't be a medicre too. Because, out of fear and false beliefs, she will never dare to act.
What, I think, would work better is to let people be mediocre first. We should just be aiming at being average. We should remain realistic while having passion for whatever we want to be.
When I am asking someone to just be average, encouraging her to show me whatever she has done, she will be more comfortable in actually working on it, knowing I won't laugh. There are many people who have potential for doing something great, but they never give their potential a try because they know that their work will be average. And that the world just laughs at the average work. Everybody wants you to be remarkable.
In order to make our family members, staff members, collegues, wife, and, son remarkable, first we should encourage them to be mediocre. Appreciate their skills, their poor writing or poor email draft. This way, they will feel confident about their work. It will be fun for them to do an average thing and then letting you see it.
Encourage people to come up with anything they have done. Encourage them to forget about being good, just ask them to focus on their own creativity, help them meet their potential.
And if the person whom you want to change is you; do the same thing. Make yourself happy with being average. The first step has to taken at zero-point, after all. Learn, make mistakes and be proud of yourself for being enough bold to do something . The more you will be willing to work, to show it to your friends, the more you will have courage to excel in whatever you do.
Don't be afraid of being average. If you are taking productive actions, and are actually making decisions, and holding yourself responsible for them, you are far better than people who are not taking action at all.
You know, there are only 01% of people who are creating something on internet. 99% of people are just looking at the screens. So, its wise to be in the league of creators. No matter how bad you are in creating your thing but still you are in group of people who are making the difference. The more you will produce lousy work today, the better it will make you tomorrow. :)
How your lousy work will make you better tomorrow, you ask. Because, with practice you will get better on a daily basis. All you have to do is to just make a decision and produce something without worrying for high quality. If you will worry for high quality, you won't even be producing low quality. So, embrace low quality and from there on go to higher quality of anything you want.
miércoles, 20 de noviembre de 2019
domingo, 17 de noviembre de 2019
different observations into a concrete method I could apply to my own studies. What
resulted was something I named the Feynman Technique and applied extensively during
my MIT Challenge. The purpose of using this technique is to help develop intuition about
the ideas you are learning. It can be used when you don’t understand an idea at all or
simply when you understand something a little but really want to turn it into a deep
The method is quite simple:
Write down the concept or problem you want to understand at the top of a piece of
In the space below, explain the idea as if you had to teach it to someone else.
If it’s a concept, ask yourself how you would convey the idea to someone who
has never heard of it before.
If it’s a problem, explain how to solve it and—crucially—why that solution
procedure makes sense to you.
When you get stuck, meaning your understanding fails to provide a clear answer, go
back to your book, notes, teacher, or reference material to find the answer.
The crux of this method is that it tries to dispel the illusion of explanatory depth. Since
many of our understandings are never articulated, it’s easy to think you understand
something you don’t. The Feynman Technique bypasses this problem by forcing you to
articulate the idea you want to understand in detail. Just as drawing a bicycle quickly
confirms whether you have a basic grasp of how it is put together, using this technique
will quickly reveal how much you really understand of your subject. Now any gaps in your
understanding will become obvious as you struggle to explain key parts of the idea.
The technique itself has some nuances and can be applied in a few different ways that
might be helpful, depending on your specific intuitive deficit.
Application 1: For Things You Don’t Understand at All
The first way to use this approach is when you don’t understand something at all. In this
case, the easiest way is to do it with the book in hand and go back and forth between
your explanation and the one in the book. This lacks the benefits of retrieval practice, but
it can often be essential when the explanation you’ve been given baffles you. Feynman
himself did something similar when presented with what he saw to be philosophical
I had this uneasy feeling of “I’m not adequate,” until finally I said to myself, “I’m going
to stop, and read one sentence slowly, so I can figure out what the hell it means.”
So I stopped—at random—and read the next sentence very carefully. I can’t remember
it precisely, but it was very close to this: “The individual member of the social
community often receives his information via visual, symbolic channels.” I went back
and forth over it, and translated. You know what it means? “People read.” 17
Although Feynman’s method was aimed more at illustrating the deliberately confusingnature of the prose rather than trying to understand a nuanced meaning, the same
method can help whenever you’re learning anything that goes over your head.
I used this technique when taking a class on machine vision during the MIT Challenge. I
didn’t understand photogrammetry, a technique of determining the 3D shape of an object
based on a series of 2D pictures taken under different lighting conditions. It involved
some tricky concepts, so I wasn’t quite sure how it worked. With my textbook at my side, I
wrote a few pages of notes, trying to sketch out the broad strokes of the idea so I could
get the general gist of it. 18
Application 2: For Problems You Can’t Seem to Solve
A second way to apply this is for solving a difficult problem or mastering a technique. In
this instance, it’s very important to go through the problem step by step alongside the
explanation you generate, rather than simply summarizing it. Summarizing may end up
skipping over the core difficulties of the problem. Going deeper may take time, but it can
help you get a strong grasp over a new method in one go, rather than needing numerous
repetitions to memorize the steps.
I applied this to a class in computer graphics for a technique I was struggling with called
grid acceleration. This is a method of speeding up the performance of ray-traced
rendering systems by avoiding analyzing objects that “obviously” won’t be on the part of
the screen you’re drawing. To get a better handle on this, I walked through the problem
with the technique, drawing a little snowman that I imagined rendering, with lines
shooting out of an eyeball representing the camera. 19
Application 3: For Expanding Your Intuition
A final way to apply this method is to ideas that are so important that it would really help
if you had a great intuition about them. In this application of the method, instead of
focusing on explaining every detail or going along with the source material, you should try
to focus on generating illustrative examples, analogies, or visualizations that would make
the idea comprehensible to someone who has learned far less than you have. Imagine
that instead of trying to teach the idea, you are being paid to write a magazine article
explaining the idea. What visual intuitions would you use to pin down the abstractions?
Which examples would flesh out a general principle? How could you make something
confusing feel obvious?
I applied this to understanding the concept of voltage in an early class on
electromagnetism during the MIT Challenge. Though I was comfortable using the concept
in problems, I didn’t feel that I had a good intuition of what it was. It’s obviously not
energy, electrons, or flows of things. Still, it was hard to get a mental image of an abstract
concept on a wire. Going through this technique and comparing the equations to the ones
for gravity, it’s clear that voltage is to the electrical force as height is to the gravitational
force. Now I could form a visual image. The wires were like troughs of water at different
heights. Batteries were like pumps, moving the water up. Resistors were like hoses
dropping down, of various widths to impede the flow of water draining down. Although this
picture of troughs and hoses wasn’t necessary for solving the equations, it stuck with me
and helped me reason my way out of new situations more easily than if voltage had just
been an abstract quantity.Demystifying Intuition
When many people look at a genius like Richard Feynman, they’re inclined to focus on his
seemingly effortless intuitive leaps. In his playful style and rebellious impulses, he may
seem to defy the stereotype that learning requires hard work. However, as we go beneath
the surface, it becomes clear that he shared much in common with the other ultralearners
I’ve studied. He worked hard on understanding things, and he put incredible amounts of
his spare time into mastering the methods that made his intuition work. In his early days
in college, he and a friend went back and forth over the early books on quantum
mechanics, racing ahead of their classmates to understand it. He even made a meticulous
timetable to allocate hours to his many intellectual pursuits. Even in his trivial obsessions,
he displayed a streak for aggressive methods; while learning lock picking, for example, he
trained himself to go through all the possible combinations, practicing them repeatedly: “I
got it down to an absolute rhythm so I could try the 400 possible back numbers in less
than half an hour. That meant I could open a safe in a maximum of eight hours—with an
average time of four hours.” 20
When people hear about geniuses, especially the iconoclastic ones such as Feynman,
there’s a tendency to focus on their gifts and not their efforts. I have no doubt that
Feynman possessed gifts. But perhaps his greatest one was his ability to merge tenacious
practice and play. He approached picking locks with the same enthusiasm for solving
puzzles that he did for unraveling the secrets of quantum electrodynamics. It’s this spirit
of playful exploration that I want to turn to in the final principle of ultralearning:
Feedback shows up in many different forms for different types of learning projects.
Getting good at stand-up comedy and learning to write computer programs involve very
different kinds of feedback. Learning higher math and learning languages are going to use
feedback in different ways. The opportunities for seeking better feedback will vary
depending on what you’re trying to learn. Rather than try to spell out exactly what
feedback you need for your learning project, I think it’s important to consider different
types of feedback, along with how each one can be used and cultivated. By knowing what
kind of feedback you’re getting, you can make sure to use it best, while also recognizing
its limitations. In particular, I want to consider three types of feedback: outcome feedback,informational feedback, and corrective feedback. Outcome feedback is the most common
and in many situations the only type of feedback available. Informational feedback is also
fairly common, and it’s important to recognize when you can split apart outcomes to get
feedback on parts of what you’re learning and when feedback only on holistic outcomes is
possible. Corrective feedback is the toughest to find but when employed well can
accelerate learning the most.
Outcome Feedback: Are You Doing It Wrong?
The first type of feedback, and the least granular, is outcome feedback. This tells you
something about how well you’re doing overall but offers no ideas as to what you’re doing
better or worse. This kind of feedback can come in the form of a grade—pass/fail, A, B, or
C—or it can come in the form of an aggregate feedback to many decisions you’re making
simultaneously. The applause Tristan de Montebello received (or the crickets he heard)
after a speech is an example of outcome feedback. It could tell him if he was getting
better or worse, but it couldn’t really say why or how to fix it. Every entrepreneur
experiences this kind of feedback when a new product hits the market. It may sell wildly
well or abysmally, but that feedback comes in bulk, not directly decomposable into the
various aspects of the product. Did the product cost too much? Was the marketing
message not clear enough? Was the packaging unappealing? Customer reviews and
comments can provide clues, but ultimately the success or failure of any new product is a
complex bundle of factors.
This type of feedback is often the easiest to get, and research shows that even getting
this feedback, which lacks a specific message about what you need to improve, can be
helpful. In one study, feedback for a task involving visual acuity facilitated learning, even
when it was delivered in blocks that were too large to get any meaningful information
about which responses were correct and which were incorrect. 4 Many projects that wholly
lack feedback can easily be changed to get this broad-scale feedback. Eric Barone, for
instance, provided a development blog to publish work on his game and solicit feedback
from early drafts. It couldn’t provide him with detailed information about what exactly to
improve and change, but his simply being immersed in an environment that provided
feedback at all was helpful.
Outcome feedback can improve how you learn through a few different mechanisms. One
is by providing you with a motivational benchmark against your goal. If your goal is to
reach a certain quality of feedback, this feedback can give you updates on your progress.
Another is that it can show you the relative merits of different methods you’re trying.
When you are progressing rapidly, you can stick to those learning methods and
approaches. When progress stalls, you can see what you might be able to change in your
current approach. Although outcome feedback isn’t complete, it is often the only kind
available and can still have a potent impact on your learning rate.
Informational Feedback: What Are You Doing Wrong?
The next type of feedback is informational feedback. This feedback tells you what you’re
doing wrong, but it doesn’t necessarily tell you how to fix it. Speaking a foreign language
with a native speaker who doesn’t share a language with you is an exercise in
informational feedback. That person’s confused stare when you misuse a word won’t tellyou what the correct word is, but it will tell you that you’re getting it wrong. Tristan de
Montebello, in addition to the overall assessment of his performance by audience
members at the end of a speech, can also get live informational feedback about how it’s
going moment to moment. Did that joke work? Is my story boring them? This is something
you can spot in the distracted glances or background chatter throughout your speech.
Rock’s stand-up experiment is also a type of informational feedback. He can tell when a
certain joke lands or doesn’t, based on the reaction of the audience. However, they can’t
tell him what to do to make it funnier—he’s the comedian, not them.
This kind of feedback is easy to obtain when you can get real-time access to a feedback
source. A computer programmer who gets error messages when her programs don’t
compile properly may not have enough knowledge to understand what she’s doing wrong.
But as errors increase or diminish, depending on what she does, she can use that signal tofix her problems. Self-provided feedback is also ubiquitous, and in some pursuits it can be
almost as good as feedback from others. When painting a picture, you can simply look at
it and get a sense of whether your brushstrokes are adding to or detracting from the
image you want to convey. Because this kind of feedback often comes from direct
interaction with the environment, it often pairs well with the third principle, directness.
Corrective Feedback: How Can You Fix What You’re Doing Wrong?
The best kind of feedback to get is corrective feedback. This is the feedback that shows
you not only what you’re doing wrong but how to fix it. This kind of feedback is often
available only through a coach, mentor, or teacher. However, sometimes it can be
provided automatically if you are using the right study materials. During the MIT
Challenge, I did most of my practice by going back and forth between assignments and
their solutions, so that when I finished a problem, I was shown not only whether I had
gotten it right or wrong but exactly how my answer differed from the correct one.
Similarly, flash cards and other forms of active recall provide corrective feedback by
showing you the answer to a question after you make your guess.
The educators Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo and Susan M. Brookhart argue, “The best
feedback is informative and usable by the student(s) who receive it. Optimal feedback
indicates the difference between the current state and the desired learning state AND
helps students to take a step to improve their learning.” 5
The main challenge of this kind of feedback is that it typically requires access to a
teacher, expert, or mentor who can pinpoint your mistakes and correct them for you.
However, sometimes the added edge of having corrective over merely informational
feedback can be worth the effort needed to find such people. Tristan de Montebello
worked with Michael Gendler to help him with his public speaking performance, and that
helped him spot subtle weaknesses in his presentations that would have gone unnoticed
by himself or by a less experienced audience member giving broader feedback.
This type of feedback trumps outcome feedback, which can’t indicate what needs
improving, and informational feedback, which can indicate what to improve but not how.
However, it can also be unreliable. Tristan de Montebello would often get conflicting
advice after delivering a speech; some audience members would tell him to slow down,
while others said to speed up. This can also be a situation in which paying for a tutor can
be useful, because that person can spot the exact nature of your mistake and correct it
with less struggle on your part. The self-directed nature of ultralearning shouldn’t
convince you that learning is best done as an entirely solitary pursuit.Further Notes on Types of Feedback
A few things are worth noting here. First, you need to be careful when trying to “upgrade”
feedback from a weaker form to a stronger form if it’s not actually possible. To switch
from outcome feedback to informational feedback, you need to be able to elicit feedback
on a per element basis of what you’re doing. If instead the feedback is being provided as
a holistic assessment of everything you’re doing, trying to turn it into informational
feedback can backfire. Game designers know to watch out for this, because asking play
testers what they don’t like about a game can often return spurious results: for example,
they don’t like the color of the character or the background music. The truth is, the
players are evaluating the game holistically, so they often can’t offer this kind of
feedback. If their responses come from using it as a whole, not from each aspect
individually, asking for greater specificity may lead to guesses from those giving
Similarly, corrective feedback requires a “correct” answer or the response of a recognized
expert. If there is no expert or a single correct approach, trying to turn informational
feedback into corrective feedback can work against you when the wrong change is
suggested as an improvement. De Montebello noted to me that the advice most people
gave him wasn’t terribly useful, but the consistency of it was. If his speech elicited wildly
different reactions each time, he knew there was still a lot of work to do. When the speechstarted to get much more consistent comments, he knew he was onto something. This
illustrates that ultralearning isn’t simply about maximizing feedback but also knowing
when to selectively ignore elements of it to extract the useful information. Understanding
the merits of these different types of feedback, as well as the preconditions that make
them possible, is a big part of choosing the right strategy for an ultralearning project.
How Quick Should Feedback Be?
An interesting question in the research on feedback is how quick it should be. Should you
get immediate information about your mistakes or wait some period of time? In general,
research has pointed to immediate feedback being superior in settings outside of the
laboratory. James A. Kulik and Chen-Lin C. Kulik review the literature on feedback timing
and suggest that “Applied studies using actual classroom quizzes and real learning
materials have usually found immediate feedback to be more effective than delay.” 6
Expertise researcher K. Anders Ericsson agrees, arguing in favor of immediate feedback
when it assists in identifying and correcting mistakes and when it allows one to execute a
corrected version of their performance revised in response to the feedback. 7
Interestingly, laboratory studies tend to show that delaying the presentation of the correctresponse along with the original task (delayed feedback) is more effective. The simplest
explanation of this result is that presenting the question and answer again offers a
second, spaced exposure to the information. If this explanation were correct, all it would
mean is that that immediate feedback is best paired with delayed review (or further
testing) to strengthen your memory compared with a single exposure. I’ll cover more on
spacing and how it impacts your memory in the next chapter on retention.
Despite the superficially mixed results on the timing of feedback from the scientific
literature, I generally recommend faster feedback. This enables a quicker recognition of
mistakes. However, there’s a possible risk that this recommendation might backslide into
getting feedback before you’ve tried your best to answer the question or solve the
problem at hand. Early studies on feedback timing tended to show a neutral or negativeimpact of immediate feedback on learning. In those studies, however, experimenters
often gave subjects the ability to see the correct answer before subjects had finished
filling out the prompt. 8 That meant subjects could often copy the correct answer rather
than try to retrieve it. Feedback too soon may turn your retrieval practice effectively into
passive review, which we already know is less effective for learning. For hard problems, I
suggest setting yourself a timer to encourage you to think hard on difficult problems
before giving up to look at the correct answer.
How to Improve Your Feedback
By now you see the importance of feedback to your learning efforts. I’ve explained why
feedback, especially when delivered to others, can sometimes backfire. I’ve also showed
how the three types—outcome, informational, and corrective—have different strengths
and the preconditions that need to be in place in order to make them effective. Now I
want to focus on some concrete tactics you can apply to get better feedback.
Tactic 1: Noise Cancellation
Anytime you receive feedback, there are going to be both a signal—the useful information
you want to process—and noise. Noise is caused by random factors, which you shouldn’t
overreact to when trying to improve. Say you’re writing articles that you post online,
trying to improve your writing ability. Most of them won’t attract much attention, and
when they do, it’s often because of factors outside of your control; for example, just the
right person happens to share it, causing it to spill across social networks. The quality of
your writing does drive these factors, but there’s enough randomness that you need to be
careful not to change your entire approach based on one data point. Noise is a real
problem when trying to improve your craft because you need to do far more work to get
the same information about how to write well. By modifying and selecting the streams of
feedback you pay attention to, you can reduce the noise and get more of the signal.
A noise-cancelling technique used in audio processing is filtering. Sound engineers know
that human speech tends to fall within a particular range of frequencies, whereas white
noise is all over the spectrum. They can boost the signal, therefore, by amplifying the
frequencies that occur in human speech and quieting everything else. One way to do this
is to look for proxy signals. These don’t exactly equal success, but they tend to eliminate
some of the noisy data. For blog writing, one way to do so would be to use tracking code
to figure out what percentage of people read your articles all the way to the end. This
doesn’t prove your writing is good, but it’s a lot less noisy than raw traffic data.
Tactic 2: Hitting the Difficulty Sweet Spot
Feedback is information. More information equals more opportunities to learn. A scientific
measure of information is based on how easily you can predict what message it will
contain. If you know that success is guaranteed, the feedback itself provides no
information; you knew it would go well all along. Good feedback does the opposite. It is
very hard to predict and thus gives more information each time you receive it.
The main way this impacts your learning is through the difficulty you’re facing. Many
people intuitively avoid constant failure, because the feedback it offers isn’t alwayshelpful. However, the opposite problem, of being too successful, is more pervasive.
Ultralearners carefully adjust their environment so that they’re not able to predict
whether they’ll succeed or fail. If they fail too often, they simplify the problem so they can
start noticing when they’re doing things right. If they fail too little, they’ll make the task
harder or their standards stricter so that they can distinguish the success of different
approaches. Basically, you should try to avoid situations that always make you feel good
(or bad) about your performance.
Tactic 3: Metafeedback
Typical feedback is performance assessment: your grade on a quiz tells you something
about how well you know the material. However, there’s another type of feedback that’s
perhaps even more useful: metafeedback. This kind of feedback isn’t about your
performance but about evaluating the overall success of the strategy you’re using to
One important type of metafeedback is your learning rate. This gives you information
about how fast you’re learning, or at least how fast you’re improving in one aspect of your
skill. Chess players might track their Elo ratings growth. LSAT studiers might track their
improvements on mock exams. Language learners might track vocabulary learned or
errors made when writing or speaking. There are two ways you can use this tool. One is to
decide when you should focus on the strategy you’re already using and when you should
experiment with other methods. If your learning rate is slowing to a trickle, that might
mean you’re hitting diminishing returns with your current approach and could benefit
from different kinds of drills, difficulties, or environments. A second way you can apply
metafeedback is by comparing two different study methods to see which works better.
During the MIT Challenge, I’d often split up questions from different subtopics before
testing myself on an exam and try different approaches side by side. Does it work better
to dive straight into trying to answer questions or to spend a little time to try to see that
you understand the main concepts first? The only way you can know is to test your own
learning rates. Tactic 4: High-Intensity, Rapid Feedback
Sometimes the easiest way to improve feedback is simply to get a lot more of it a lot
more often. This is particularly true when the default mode of learning involves little or
infrequent feedback. De Montebello’s strategy of improving public speaking relied largely
on getting far more frequent exposure to the stage than most speakers do. Lewis’s
language immersion exposes him to information about his pronunciation at a point when
most students still haven’t uttered a word. High-intensity, rapid feedback offers
informational advantages, but more often the advantage is emotional, too. Fear of
receiving feedback can often hold you back more than anything. By throwing yourself into
a high-intensity, rapid feedback situation, you may initially feel uncomfortable, but you’ll
get over that initial aversion much faster than if you wait months or years before getting
Being in such a situation also provokes you to engage in learning more aggressively than
you might otherwise. Knowing that your work will be evaluated is an incredible motivator
to do your best. This motivational angle for committing to high-intensity feedback may
end up outweighing the informational advantage it provides.Beyond Feedback
Receiving feedback isn’t always easy. If you process it as a message about your ego
rather than your skills, it’s easy to let a punch become a knockout. Though carefully
controlling the feedback environment so it is maximally encouraging may be a tantalizing
option, real life rarely affords such an opportunity. Instead, it’s better to get in and take
the punches early so that they don’t put you down for the count. Though short-term
feedback can be stressful, once you get into the habit of receiving it, it becomes easier to
process without overreacting emotionally. Ultralearners use this to their advantage,
exposing themselves to massive amounts of feedback so that the noise can be stripped
away from the signal.
Feedback and the information it provides, however, is useful only if you remember the
lessons it teaches. Forgetting is human nature, so it is not enough to learn; you also need
to make the information stick. This brings us to the next principle of ultralearning,
retention, in which we’ll discuss strategies that will ensure the lessons you learn aren’t
Metalearning: First Draw a Map. Start by learning how to learn the subject
or skill you want to tackle. Discover how to do good research and how to draw on
your past competencies to learn new skills more easily.
Focus: Sharpen Your Knife. Cultivate the ability to concentrate. Carve out
chunks of time when you can focus on learning, and make it easy to just do it.
Directness: Go Straight Ahead. Learn by doing the thing you want to
become good at. Don’t trade it off for other tasks, just because those are more
convenient or comfortable.
Drill: Attack Your Weakest Point. Be ruthless in improving your weakest
points. Break down complex skills into small parts; then master those parts and
build them back together again.
Retrieval: Test to Learn. Testing isn’t simply a way of assessing knowledge
but a way of creating it. Test yourself before you feel confident, and push yourself
to actively recall information rather than passively review it.
Feedback: Don’t Dodge the Punches. Feedback is harsh and
uncomfortable. Know how to use it without letting your ego get in the way. Extract
the signal from the noise, so you know what to pay attention to and what to ignore.Retention: Don’t Fill a Leaky Bucket. Understand what you forget and
why. Learn to remember things not just for now but forever.
Intuition: Dig Deep Before Building Up. Develop your intuition through
play and exploration of concepts and skills. Understand how understanding works,
and don’t recourse to cheap tricks of memorization to avoid deeply knowing things.Experimentation: Explore Outside Your Comfort Zone. All of these
principles are only starting points. True mastery comes not just from following the
path trodden by others but from exploring possibilities they haven’t yet imagined.
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.
jueves, 14 de noviembre de 2019
martes, 12 de noviembre de 2019
Mi compañero argumenta que las personas que aún teniendo la oportunidad y no crecen es por que les falta o carácter o poder de planeación.
Hoy me di cuenta que uno debe hacer práctica prospectiva de hasta cuatro años con antelación.
Si yo hubiera tenido esa precaución por ejemplo,tal vez las cosas hubieran sido diferentes.
domingo, 10 de noviembre de 2019
The way to acquire mindfulness is by practicing it.
If I were more observative I would have been able to know that the german and the mexican were mad because I parked incorrectly.
This is something deep
also when he scolded me I had better apologize.
I am a little bit mad, because it was not my intention to piss anyone. 7
I really did not know about the way to park
next time I will bring candies for him or some cookies or something.
but to start , how can I know how to avoid those common sense mistakes, may be only through experience.
I am not bad , really , I really did not notice I would piss someone off.
If I had known he was going to be pissed I would not have parked there.
It is like when I used to misspark at el campestre and I pissed some people on the way.
But anyway it is not the right way to teach someone.
I firmly believe a good leader knows how to teach.
Es lo que me estaba diciendo Abel la otra vez sobre evitar ser tosco. y tratar a los demás de la misma forma que me gustaría que me trataran.
sábado, 9 de noviembre de 2019
Este año, el Festival Internacional del Globo cumple 18 años, en los que sumará ya:
+ 5 millones de visitas
+ 2,500 globos de todo el mundo
+ 10 mil vuelos
+ cientos de horas de espectáculos de talla mundial
Todo esto ha contribuido a que el FIG sea uno de los 3 eventos de aerostación más importantes del mundo.
¡Te invitamos a celebrar con nosotros!
El Festival Internacional del Globo es un evento de aerostación en la ciudad de León, Guanajuato, México. Actualmente está posicionado como uno de los 3 más importantes de su tipo, a nivel mundial.
Cuánta gente visita el festival del globo?
dónde se hace el festival del globo?
martes, 5 de noviembre de 2019
sábado, 2 de noviembre de 2019
Se aproximan el 1 y el 2 de noviembre y los mexicanos se preparan para celebrar el Día de Muertos. Los mexicanos ven a la muerte desde un punto de vista poco convencional, incluso se ríen de ella. Por eso, el Día de Muertos es una celebración llena de color y simbolismo. El Día de Muertos es sin duda una de las tradiciones más importantes para la mayoría de los mexicanos.
El origen del Día de Muertos está en la Mesoamérica prehispánica. Desde entonces, durante la temporada de cosecha, los pueblos indígenas como el purépecha, el mexica y el maya honraban a sus muertos con ofrendas y rituales. Con la conquista se fija la fecha de esta festividad que coincide con las fechas católicas de Todos los Santos y los Fieles Difuntos.
En la actualidad, en muchos estados de México se realizan distintas actividades para conmemorar estas fechas. Muchas familias colocan altares en sus casas para recordar a sus seres queridos muertos. Muchas otras personas van a visitar a sus muertos a los cementerios el 1 de noviembre y colocan ofrendas o altares sobre las tumbas. Luego las familias pasan la noche sin dormir. Mientras velan, rezan y comparten historias y recuerdos de sus difuntos. El día siguiente, el 2 de noviembre, es una fiesta, porque los mexicanos sienten en su corazón que sus seres queridos muertos vuelven a estar con ellos por un solo día. Entonces, las familias comen en el cementerio, alrededor de las tumbas, a veces acompañados por la música de los mariachis.
Las ofrendas y altares tienen un gran simbolismo. En ellas, los mexicanos acostumbran poner las fotos de los difuntos a los que se dedica el altar y prenden velas. Además, adornan los altares con papel picado y flores de cempasúchil −flor de color amarillo intenso que se cree es guía de las almas. Otros elementos importantes en las ofrendas son: el copal, la sal, el agua, las calaveritas de azúcar, el pan de muerto; comida como mole, tamales, calabaza en tacha; bebidas como mezcal, atole, tequila; cigarrillos y otras cosas favoritas de los muertos. En las tumbas de los niños, los familiares colocan juguetes también
La tradiciones mexicanas de la Velación de las Ánimas y el Día de Muertos son Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad de la Unesco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).
Cuándo se celebra el día de muertos ?
Cuándo comenzó la celebración del día de muertos?
Qué hacen los mexicanos el día de muertos?
Cómo decoran los mexicanos sus altares?
2. Never stop doing great just because someone doesn’t give you credit.
3. It always seems impossible until it’s done.
4. Marry the right person. This one decision will determine 90% of your happiness or misery.
5. Invest the now in tomorrow’s dream.
6. Some Girls want superman but walk past Clark kent every day!
7. If you want to succeed, you have to let failure be your best friend!
8. Be self-starter.
9. I feel like making dreams come true.
10. Wish for it. Hope for it. Dream for it. But by all means: DO IT!
CAPTIONS FOR MOTIVATION
1. Life is short. Do stuff that matters.
2. When you tell me “I can’t”, all I hear is bla bla.
3. Tomorrow is a lovely excuse, isn’t it?!
4. Tomorrow is a day that never arrives.
5. Stop worrying about the potholes in the road and enjoy the journey.
6. If you are always trying to be normal, you will never know how amazing you can be.
7. It is hard to fail completely when you are aiming for something big.
8. If it would be easy, everybody could do it!
9. Success is standing up one more time than you got knocked over.
10. Only you can change your life. Nobody else can do it for.
Best Captions For Motivation
1. Be self-starter.
2. If it doesn’t challenge you, it doesn’t change you.
3. I didn’t come here to lose.
4. Hustle until your haters ask if you’re hiring.
5. Don’t stop when you are tired. Stop when you are done!
6. Get up, stand up! Don’t give up the fight!
7. Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore.
8. But if you close your eyes, does it almost feel like nothing’s changed at all?
9. One day, you will be at the place you always wanted to be.
10. The goal is to Retire Young and Rich.
Best Motivational Captions
1. People don't fail, They give up.
2. Past is in your head, future is in your hand.
3. Work until expensive become cheap.
4. Dream big, work hard, and stay humble during the process.
5. Don't stress. Do your best. Forget the rest.
6. The goal is not to be better than the other person, but your previous self.
7. One day you’ll wake up and you’ll be so glad you didn’t settle for just anything, and you chose to wait for God’s plan.
8. A bird sitting on a tree is never afraid of the branch breaking, because her trust is not on the branch but on it’s own wings. Always believe in yourself.
9. Right or Wrong doesn't exist! When u have a CONFIDENCE.
10. Be bold to own your mistakes in Life, accept your faults and improve your personality.
Awesome Motivational Captions
1. Stop being afraid of what could go wrong and start being positive about what could go right.
2. Great things never come from comfort zones.
3. Life doesn't give you what you want. It gives you what you work for.
4. Age is a question of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter.
5. Hope is the power that gives a person the confidence to step out and try.
6. It does not matter how many times you get knocked down, but how many times you get up.
7. Decision defines destiny.
8. All you need to change is will.
9. Never, never, never, never give up.
10. Do not give up, the beginning is always the hardest.
Best Captions For Motivation
1. Do not give up, the beginning is always the hardest.
2. Whatever brings you down, will eventually make you stronger.
3. The harder you fall, the higher you bounce.
4. The secret of success is to know something nobody else knows.
5. Everyone has a will to win but very few have the will to prepare to win.
6. Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.
7. If you want your life to be meaningful go out and do something about it.
8. Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going.
9. SUCCESS belongs only to those who are willing to work harder than anyone else.
10. If you believe in yourself, things are possible.
11. Enjoy Every Moment You Have. Because In Life, There Are No Rewinds.
12. Life goes on.With or without you :-)
13. Its the possibility of having a dream come true that makes life interesting.
14. Life is a matter of change is not a matter of choice.
15. For comfortable journey of life, just reduce the luggage of desires.:-)
16. The worst part of life is waiting. The best part of life is having someone worth waiting for.
17. If there are no ups and down in your life It means you are dead.
18. Life has no limitations, except the ones you make.
19. Don't waste your life trying to get back what was taken away.
20. You don't need everything to enjoy life. You already have life to enjoy everything :) :)
Best Captions For Motivations
1. If you don't go after what you want, you will never have it.
2. Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there.
3. Pearls don't lie on the sea shore. If you want one, you must dive for it.
4. The difference between ordinary and extraordinary is that little extra.
5. People know you for what you've done, not for what you plan to do.
6. One day your entire life will flash in front of your eyes. Make sure it is worth watching.
7. Patience is not the ability to wait, but the ability to keep a good attitude while waiting.
8. Opportunity dances with those who are already on the dance floor.
9. You don't have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great.
10. Success is simple. Do what's right, the right way, at the right time.
11. Live like a candle which burns itself but gives light to others.
12. Better to live one year as a tiger, than a hundred as a sheep.
13. We all have problems; the way we solve them is what makes us different.
14. Try to learn something about everything and everything about something.
15. You'll never leave where you are until you decide where you'd rather be.
16. Once you learn to be happy alone you won't tolerate anyone who can't make you just as happy.
17. If people knew how hard I had to work to gain my mastery, it wouldn't seem wonderful at all.
18. Trying and Doing are two different things. When you try, you hope. When you do, you succeed.
19. People change and things go wrong, but always remember, life goes on.
20. Sometimes it's the smallest decisions that can change your life forever.